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球墨铸铁井盖详解和实际应用

来源:http://www.zgcjxdw.com添加时间:2020-05-15 10:47:36

球墨铸铁井盖的详细讲解

Detailed explanation of ductile iron manhole cover

球墨铸铁井盖是球墨铸铁产品的一种,球墨铸铁通过球化和孕育处理得到球状石墨,有效地提高了铸铁的机械性能,特别是提高了塑性和韧性,从而得到比碳钢还高的强度。球墨铸铁是20世纪五十年代发展起来的一种高强度铸铁材料,其综合性能接近于钢,正是基于其优异的性能,已成功地用于铸造一些受力复杂,强度、韧性、耐磨性要求较高的零件。球墨铸铁已迅速发展为仅次于灰铸铁的、应用十分广泛的铸铁材料。所谓“以铁代钢”,主要指球墨铸铁。

Nodular cast iron manhole cover is a kind of nodular cast iron product。 Through spheroidizing and inoculation, nodular graphite is obtained, which effectively improves the mechanical properties of cast iron, especially the plasticity and toughness, so as to obtain higher strength than carbon steel。 Nodular cast iron is a kind of high-strength cast iron material developed in the 1950s。 Its comprehensive properties are close to that of steel。 It is based on its excellent properties that nodular cast iron has been successfully used to cast some parts with complex stress, high strength, toughness and wear resistance requirements。 Nodular cast iron has developed rapidly into a widely used cast iron material next to grey cast iron。 The so-called "replacing steel with iron" mainly refers to ductile iron。

球墨铸铁井盖一般分为圆形和方形,在市区的路政方面,一般采用圆形,因为圆形的井盖不易倾斜,能够较好的保护好行人和车辆的安全。使用圆形,主要是考虑到圆形的井盖通过其圆心的每条直径长度都是一样的,这样如果井盖被经过的车辆轧起时,因为不论如何轧起,其直径都会比下面的井口略宽,井盖不会掉到井口里去。

Nodular cast iron manhole covers are generally divided into round and square. In urban road administration, round manhole covers are generally used because they are not easy to tilt and can better protect the safety of pedestrians and vehicles. The use of a circle is mainly due to the fact that the length of each diameter of the round well cover passing through its center is the same, so that if the well cover is rolled up by the passing vehicle, the diameter of the well cover will be slightly wider than that of the lower wellhead no matter how it is rolled up, and the well cover will not fall into the wellhead.

QQ截图20170303165332.pngQQ截图20170303165340.png

而如果采用方形,因为方形的对角线明显长于其每条边长,这样的井盖被轧起时,很容易沿井口的对角线方向掉进井中,造成安全隐患。如果井口做成圆形或明显小于井盖,方形的井盖就不会掉进井中。这里就牵涉到一个材料的利用和节约的问题。井盖的使用取决于井口的大小,如果非要在上面安装个面积远远大于井口的方形井盖,那么材料的利用和实用价值自然没有直接使用圆形的井盖更有效,既节约井盖的材料,也保证了井口的安全。

If the square is used, because the diagonal of the square is obviously longer than each side, such a well cover can easily fall into the well along the diagonal direction of the wellhead when it is rolled up, causing potential safety hazards. If the wellhead is round or obviously smaller than the well cover, the square well cover will not fall into the well. Here is a matter of maximum utilization and saving of materials. The use of the well cover depends on the size of the wellhead. If a square well cover with an area far larger than the wellhead has to be installed on it, then the utilization and practical value of the materials are not more effective than using the round well cover directly, which not only saves the material of the well cover, but also ensures the safety of the wellhead.

而在乡下和电缆井利用的,一般采用方形,这样可以更好地预防雨水等液体的进入。

In the countryside and cable wells, the square is generally used, which can better prevent rainwater and other liquids from entering.

特点

characteristic

球墨铸铁井盖主要由球墨铸铁打造出来的井盖,这种井盖质量的好坏就牵扯到了球化率的问题。处理铸件的常用涂料就是防锈沥青漆了,当然球墨铸铁井盖的表面也是经过喷涂防锈沥青漆处理的。球墨铸铁井盖有一个优点,就是由于球墨铸铁强度高、韧性好,使得球墨铸井盖要比同类型的灰口铸铁井盖轻30%左右。

Nodular cast iron manhole cover is mainly made of nodular cast iron. The quality of this kind of manhole cover is related to the spheroidization rate. The common coating used to treat castings is antirust asphalt paint. Of course, the surface of nodular cast iron manhole cover is also treated by spraying antirust asphalt paint. The advantages of ductile iron well cover are that it is 30% lighter than the same type of gray iron well cover due to its high strength and toughness.

球墨铸铁井盖的特点:

Features of ductile iron manhole cover:

韧性好。冲击值与中碳钢材相近,是灰铁材料的10倍以上。

Good toughness. The impact value is similar to that of medium carbon steel, more than 10 times of that of gray iron.

抗腐蚀性强。喷水腐蚀试验,九十天的腐蚀量仅为钢管的1/40,是灰铁管的1/10。使用寿命是灰铁管的2倍,是普通钢管的5倍。

Strong corrosion resistance. In the water spray corrosion test, the corrosion amount in 90 days is only 1 / 40 of the steel pipe and 1 / 10 of the gray iron pipe. Its service life is twice that of grey iron pipe and five times that of ordinary steel pipe.

塑性好。延伸率≥7%,与高碳钢材相近,而灰铁材料延伸率为零。

Good plasticity. Elongation ≥ 7%, similar to that of high carbon steel, while the elongation of gray iron material is zero.

强度高。抗拉强度ób≥420MPa,屈服强度ós≥300MPa,与低碳钢材相同,是灰铁材料的三倍。

High strength. The tensile strength is not less than 420MPa, and the yield strength is not less than 300mpa.

由于球墨铸铁的球状石墨微观结构,在减弱振动能力方面,球墨铸铁优于铸钢,因此更加有利于降低应力。选择球墨铸铁的一个重要的原因在于球墨铸铁比铸钢成本低。球墨铸铁的低成本使得这种材料更加受欢迎,铸造效率更高,也减少了球墨铸铁的机加工成本。

Because of the microstructure of spheroidal graphite, spheroidal graphite cast iron is better than cast steel in reducing vibration capacity, so it is more conducive to reducing stress. One of the important reasons for choosing nodular cast iron is that the cost of nodular cast iron is lower than that of cast steel. The low cost of nodular cast iron makes the material more popular, the casting efficiency is higher and the machining cost of nodular cast iron is reduced.

球墨铸铁的强度和铸钢的强度是可比的。球墨铸铁具有更高的屈服强度,其屈服强度为40k,而铸钢的屈服强度只有36k。在大部分市政应用领域,如:水、盐水、蒸汽等,球墨铸铁的耐腐蚀性和抗氧化性都超过铸钢。

The strength of nodular cast iron is comparable to that of cast steel. Ductile iron has higher yield strength, the lowest yield strength is 40K, while the yield strength of cast steel is only 36K. In most municipal applications, such as water, salt water and steam, the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance of nodular cast iron are higher than that of cast steel.

QQ截图20160713182644.png

性能

performance

球铁铸件差不多已在所有主要工业部门中得到应用,这些部门要求高的强度、塑性、韧性、耐磨性、耐严重的热和机械冲击、耐高温或低温、耐腐蚀以及尺寸稳定性等。为了满足使用条件的这些变化、球墨铸铁现有许多牌号,提供了机械性能和物理性能的一个很宽的范围。

Ductile iron castings have been applied in almost all major industrial sectors, which require high strength, plasticity, toughness, wear resistance, severe thermal and mechanical impact resistance, high or low temperature resistance, corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. In order to meet these changes of service conditions, there are many brands of nodular cast iron, which provide a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.

如标准化组织ISO1083所规定的大多数球墨铸铁铸件,主要是以非合金态生产的。显然,这个范围包括抗拉强度大于800牛顿/毫米,延伸率为2%的高强度牌号。另一个极端是高塑性牌号,其延伸率大于17%,而相应的强度较低(为370牛顿/毫米)。强度和延伸率并不是设计者选择材料的根,而其它决定性的重要性能还包括屈服强度、弹性模数、耐磨性和疲劳强度、硬度和冲击性能。另外,耐蚀性和抗氧化以及电磁性能对于设计者也许是关键的。为了满足这些特殊使用,研制了一组奥氏体球铁,通常叫傲Ni一Resis亡球铁。这些奥氏体球铁,主要用锌、铬和锰合金化,并且列入标准。

For example, most of the ductile iron castings specified by ISO 1083 are mainly produced in non alloy state. Obviously, this range includes high strength grades with tensile strength greater than 800 n / mm and elongation of 2%. The other extreme is the high plasticity grade, with an elongation of more than 17% and a corresponding low strength (370 n / mm minimum). Strength and elongation are not the only root for designers to choose materials, while other decisive and important properties include yield strength, elastic modulus, wear resistance and fatigue strength, hardness and impact performance. In addition, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and electromagnetic properties may be key for designers. In order to meet these special applications, a group of Austenitic Ductile Iron, usually called Aoni - Reis dead ductile iron, has been developed. These Austenitic Ductile Irons are mainly alloyed with zinc, chromium and manganese and are listed in international standards.

制作

make

(一)严格要求化学成分,对原铁液要求的碳硅含量比灰铸铁高,降低球墨铸铁中锰,磷,硫的含量

(1) The chemical composition is strictly required. The carbon and silicon content of the original liquid iron is higher than that of gray iron. The content of manganese, phosphorus and sulfur in nodular iron is reduced

(二)铁液出炉温度比灰铸铁更高,以补偿球化,孕育处理时铁液温度的损失

(2) The temperature of molten iron is higher than that of gray iron to compensate for the loss of molten iron temperature during spheroidization and inoculation

(三)进行球化处理,即往铁液中添加球化剂

(3) Spheroidizing treatment, i.e. adding spheroidizing agent to molten iron

(四)加入孕育剂进行孕育处理

(4) Inoculant treatment

(五)球墨铸铁流动性较差,收缩较大,因此需要较高的浇注温度及较大的浇注系统尺寸,合理应用冒口,冷铁,采用顺序凝固原则

(5) Because of the poor fluidity and large shrinkage of nodular cast iron, higher pouring temperature and larger pouring system size are needed. The riser, cold iron and sequential solidification principle are adopted

(六)进行热处理

(6) Heat treatment

应用

application

球墨井盖主要应用领域:市政道路,高速公路,通信,电力,自来水,小区,学校等各种园区。

The main application fields of nodular manhole cover: municipal roads, expressways, communication, electric power, tap water, communities, schools and other parks.

安装

install

为了确保铸铁井盖的正常使用,要注意安装质量,做到尺寸准确,安装坚固,开启方便,外表清洁美观,根据检查铸铁井盖的技术标准,特制定以下安装细则:

In order to ensure the normal use of cast iron manhole cover, attention shall be paid to the installation quality, accurate size, firm installation, convenient opening, clean and beautiful appearance. According to the technical standards for inspection of cast iron manhole cover, the following installation rules are specially formulated:

铸铁井盖的砖砌体砌筑,应按照设计院设计的井盖尺寸确定其内径或长*宽,方圆(如按实样施工的话更好),也可相应参照标准执行。砌井时一定要注意井口内径应与井盖井箅的内径相符,安装好的井盖应与路面相平。混凝土或沥青将井座浇铸铺设后,应及时将盖打开清扫,避免砂浆或沥青将检查井盖与座浇成一体,以免影响日后开启。

For the brick masonry of cast iron well cover, the inner diameter, length * width and square circle (if the construction is based on the actual sample, it is best) shall be determined according to the well cover size designed by the Design Institute, which can also be executed according to the corresponding standards. When building a well, it must be noted that the inner diameter of the wellhead shall be consistent with the inner diameter of the well cover grate, and the well cover installed shall be flush with the road surface. After pouring and laying the well seat with concrete or asphalt, the cover shall be opened and cleaned in time to avoid mortar or asphalt pouring the manhole cover and the seat into one, so as to avoid affecting the opening in the future.

水泥路面井座安装时,在井口的砖砌体上用C25混凝土浇铸20CM厚圈梁抹平,一定要保持井座四方着实,整体平整,不得松动,并在井盖浇铸宽为40CM的混凝土保护圈(如果是水泥路面,也可浇铸宽为20CM的混凝土保护圈,并用钢筋加强)保养期要在10天以上。

When installing the well seat on the cement road, use C25 concrete to cast 20cm thick ring beam on the brick masonry at the wellhead to level, make sure that the well seat is square and solid, and the whole is flat without looseness, and cast a 40cm wide concrete protection ring on the well cover (if it is a cement road, it can also cast a 20cm wide concrete protection ring, and strengthen it with steel bars) with a maintenance period of more than 10 days.

为保持盖外表的美观,表面花纹和字迹的清晰,在沥青路面施工时应用薄铁皮覆盖在井盖上或废机油等刷涂盖面,防止沥青油喷在井盖上;在水泥路面施工时,应用塑料膜将井盖盖好,以防止水泥砂浆沾染井盖表面,损伤表面花纹、字迹,也可以当天施工完时用水将井盖表面清洗干净。

In order to keep the appearance of the cover beautiful and the surface pattern and handwriting clear, a thin iron sheet shall be used to cover the well cover or waste oil to brush the cover during the construction of asphalt pavement to prevent the asphalt oil from spraying on the well cover; in the construction of cement pavement, a plastic film shall be used to cover the well cover to prevent the water stop mud mortar from contaminating the well cover surface, damaging the surface pattern and handwriting, and water can also be used after the construction of the same day Clean the well cover surface.

在沥青路面上安装铸铁井盖时,一定要注意避免施工机械直接碾压井座,在路面整体浇铸时,应予在路面预留比井座略大的孔,在沥青铺完后安置。(全砼路面应在二结石铺完碾实后安装)确保井盖安置质量以延长使用寿命。

When installing the cast iron well cover on the asphalt pavement, it is necessary to avoid the direct rolling of the well seat by the construction machinery. During the overall casting of the pavement, the hole slightly larger than the well seat shall be reserved on the pavement and placed after the asphalt pavement is completed. (the whole concrete pavement shall be installed after two stones are paved and compacted) ensure the quality of well cover placement to extend the service life.

以上由山东球墨铸铁井盖雨水口-球墨铸铁井盖厂家,济南市万顺铸业有限公司提供。为我们介绍的便是球墨铸铁井盖在规划时,外表规划上斑纹的主要原因,留意好这些方面的问题至关重要,希望以上介绍能够为您带来必定的提示和帮助。山东球墨铸铁井盖雨水口-球墨铸铁井盖厂家由济南市万顺铸业有限公司。欢迎来电或网站咨询http://www.zgcjxdw.com/

The above is provided by Shandong ductile iron manhole cover rainwater outlet - ductile iron manhole cover manufacturer, Jinan Wanshun Casting Co., Ltd. What we have introduced is the main reason why the surface of nodular cast iron manhole cover is mottled when planning. It is very important to pay attention to these problems. I hope the above introduction can bring you some hints and help. Shandong ductile iron manhole cover rainwater outlet - ductile iron manhole cover manufacturer by Jinan Wanshun Casting Co., Ltd. Welcome to http://www.zgcjxdw.com/


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